Let someone try to tell you sportsmen don’t care about the heritage and future of deer hunting in Georgia. Forget how few hunters showed up for state-held public meetings no one knew about, let them talk to the rural mail carrier who delivers to GON’s office, or to the GON folks who spent four weeks day and night keystroking every word from two- and three-page handwritten letters that poured in with this year’s cover-ballot VOTES survey.
Sportsmen care, with a passion. And that gives us hope we can once again have a Georgia deer season where the majority of hunters look back and rate their hunting as excellent or good. GON has been doing our annual Rate Your Season survey for almost two decades. Used to be, season after season the top ratings were positive, and poor ratings garnered the lowest response.
That began to change about a decade ago. Hunters started to express concern that deer numbers were getting too low on their hunting land. Those who said coyotes were eating deer were scoffed at, and they were still being told it was impossible to kill too many does—that if you wanted to grow big bucks, shoot every doe you saw.
That was the past. Going forward, sportsmen have lots of opinions and ideas, and some of those appear below. We randomly picked a tiny fraction of the overwhelming number of comments to put in the magazine. Some of these comments you might agree with, others might make you scratch your head—or bang it on the table. Regardless, we feel all sportsmen should have a voice. There was only space for a very small sample of comments in this issue of GON. We want everyone’s opinion and ideas to be heard, so every single comment was keystroked and is published here. Next to each county is a letter and number, which shows the number of season ratings for that county (e-excellent, g-good, etc.)
Appling Co. G-5, F-2
Good: Why not leave doe days in all season? Just because it’s a doe day doesn’t mean you need to shoot them. I hunted every day of the season and saw does every day, and I did not kill the first one. Leave that up to each hunter to shoot them or not.
Good: The buck-only hunting may have saved some does to grow bigger. I think the high limit encourages to kill more. If people feed more, maybe deer will get better minerals. People don’t plant farms like they used to. I don’t hunt anymore, but my son killed two does and one buck. That’s enough for us. My wife hunts, but cannot shoot.
Good: The two seasons prior to last year, I was able to harvest two bucks and two does for my family. I rated both of them excellent, but this year I rated it only good, because I had to pass up does I could have harvested during the buck-only time. Question 1: I disapprove of the December buck-only. I had already taken two bucks by Nov. 11 and needed a couple of more does to take care of the meat I needed for my family. I also don’t like to shoot does that late in the year, because a lot of them are already carrying little ones. On Jan. 11, my neighbor shot a doe, and when he cleaned and processed her she had two little ones in her. Question 2: I would like to see the doe limit at four to six, and the season for does returned to the full season. Bucks remain the same. Question 3: I live in the Southern Zone and would like to see baiting be continued. I have no property for food plots, so without baiting, I would be down on my possible deer harvest. As for the Northern Zone, only they and the DNR can determine if it is needed.
Fair: My deer season was much like previous ones. I saw plenty of deer and most all were healthy. I feel that the season dates and limits are fine and have not experienced anything that makes me feel there is a decline in overall numbers of deer. However, I do feel that the coyote population is a real concern and something needs to be done to dramatically reduce their numbers. I’m trying to do my part. Keep up the good fight!
Atkinson Co. G-2, F-2
Good: We saw a lot of deer this season and harvested our limit on bucks. Question 1: Let children under the age of 16 harvest a doe during the month of December to keep them interested in hunting. Question 2: I think the deer harvest on does is too high for adults. Question 3: Most hunters are going to hunt over bait whether it is a corn pile, corn field or food plot.
Good: I rate this season good, not because of what I shot. I didn’t shoot anything. A good number of deer were taken, including several big bucks. I saw some and the pictures of a few big 10-pointer. I’m 77 years old and don’t hunt as much as I used to. But I give thanks for every huntin’ and fishing trip. I saw sign everywhere I hunted. The deer are out there, but the state needs to reduce the number of tags issued.
Fair: Don’t agree with closing of December. I am only going to kill two does anyway, but only had one up to December. January they are hard to find. Ten deer is way too many for anyone. I know of no one killing 10 does. Atkinson County poor for deer anyway on size and horns but enough to go around. Coyotes bad!
Bacon Co. G-2, P-1
Good: Life in the deer woods has been a good one. While preseason sightings were on the high side, they all seem to go into hiding when the season hit. Overall, the last two years our deer numbers seem to be down, while overall quality is up. I killed a 9-point Christmas Day with an 18-inch spread. Thanks Santa. Along with several does, this season has been good. I high point to this season was a good buddy, Wendall Whitley, of Alma, killed a very nice 6-point along with several does. What makes this special is I was with him 25 years ago when he killed his first deer. And in those past 25 years he hasn’t killed another deer. Even if I hadn’t killed a single deer this season, the excitement he exuded would have made the whole season excellent. We had a good crop of acorns, which made our deer scattered. Food plots suffered due to lack of rain. But our late season green fields are getting hammered.
Poor: My season was very poor; no sign of rut this year and not a lot of deer seen during daylight hours. I had some good pictures of nice bucks but only had one big 9-point killed by my wife. I didn’t even take a buck this year and only killed two does. We use to see at least eight to 10 deer every time we hunted, but I believe surrounding clubs are killing too many. I would love to see a two-buck, three-doe limit again and a shorter rifle season. I did all my hunting in Bacon County on land I have managed for 15 years, family only with quality bucks only.
Baker Co. G-2, F-5, P-3
Fair: Time DNR manages deer and game for the average, vast majority and not just for the huge landowners. Give them doe permits if needed, but the overall harvest on small tracts and clubs must come down to reasonable levels. It’s not sustainable now that coyotes are here to stay.
Poor: No deer killed.
Baldwin Co. E-2, G-5, F-15, P-7
Excellent: On opening day I saw nine deer, seven does and two bucks. And the bucks were chasing does on Oct. 19. But it seems to me the rut was in three times this season for some reason. I took five does and one nice, big 7-pointer. The end of season I had one 8-point, one 4-point and one longhorn spike and five small does still walking when I left them on Dec. 30. There were three days that I did not see deer that I was in the woods. Question 1: Disapprove. I saw too many does. Every time I went to the woods in December, I saw does. Anywhere from two to seven does in one day Hunting northeast Baldwin County. One and half miles from Baldwin, Hancock County line. Too many lines. Question 2: Keep limit the same, except it should if you want 10 does and no bucks, you should be able to get 10 does. I kill for meat, I let bucks walk. Make hunting over bait legal statewide. Let the whole state make money.
Good: I saw several deer this season, mostly bucks. I didn’t shoot anything because I figured the bucks will be only better next year. I saw a number of does on my trail cam but none while in my stand.
Good: Thank you for being a voice for sportsmen. I saw many deer and several young promising bucks but no shooters for me. I like the reduced limit and restricted doe harvest. Please push to allow baiting statewide. For the life of me, I don’t understand how the Southern Zone can bait while the Northern Zone can’t. It makes no sense. A majority of hunters do bait, and the law-abiding hunter is getting the shaft. Allow baiting statewide!
Fair: Limit should be two bucks, four does. I’m 74 years old and hunt for the meat. Please stop the 25 days of no does. Let the north do the same as the south, days and corn.
Fair: Season was about average. Killed one buck and one doe. Hunt suburban deer just north of Milledgeville. No sighting of deer the last three times I hunted.
Fair: My health is getting worse every year. That’s the reason for not a better season. But I like to go. Make baiting legal. It will get people like me to get his two fat does and get out of the woods for other people to hunt.
Fair: I saw a fair amount of grown deer and one nice 8-point, which I passed up. I have been seeing this deer for the past three years. He was a 4-point three years ago, a 6-point last year and he is now a nice 8-point. I hope to see him again next year and expect him to a 10-point. I did not see the yearlings this year that I have seen, and I saw too much sign of coyotes. I sure wish the state could see fit to put a bounty on coyotes. I did not take a deer this year. I killed a doe last year and that was the only deer I have killed in seven years. The limit needs to be three deer per hunter, two bucks, 4-points one side outside the ears, and one doe. We have to rebuild and protect he herd in Georgia.
Poor: I did not kill a deer. There was not enough deer movement for some unknown reason. Ten hunters are in our club; however, only 14 deer were killed. I would very much like to see hunting over bait statewide and either-sex kill for the entire season. To my way of thinking, there is not much difference between planting a food plot and putting out bait.
Poor: We had a poor season because of poachers and local residents caught on our trail cams. Called DNR to no avail. I guess we are small fish in a big pond. One trespasser caught on trail camera was a convicted felon with a firearm.
Poor: I saw fewer deer than I did last season and in the four years prior, and as a result I did not harvest one. I’m not upset over not harvesting an animal, but of course it is much more enjoyable to at least see a lot. I did not take a shot as I only saw deer twice when I could have made a poor shot. Re: questions 1-4, acknowledging that laws are a legislative responsibility, taxpayers should insist that our legislators pay more attention to hunters and wildlife experts. This may seem naive, but we should write our legislators, send e-mails, etc. to pressure them. Recommend that GON provide the names of the respective Georgia legislative committees and the names of the legislators on them along with mailing and e-mail addresses.
Poor: Hunted a 30-acre piece of property with little food source. We had not food plots. All season saw maybe a handful of deer. Didn’t get to harvest any of them, so I say it was a poor season.
Banks Co. E-1, G-1, F-4, P-4
Fair: We need a longer bow season and also extend the muzzleloader/youth season. This would help in lowering the number of does killed. We could go back to two bucks and three does.
Poor: This was the worst year of hunting I have had in almost 40 years of deer hunting. There are so few does left that I choose not to shoot any. The few fawns that will be born will be in danger from yotes and dogs. I shot one small buck for the freezer. The 2014 season will probably be worse than 2013. Hunters don’t seem to be the problem. Local sportsmen only harvest enough to feed their families. Coyotes and neighbor dogs are the problem. They even brought down a small grown buck in my backyard. At least there are plenty of squirrels.
Poor: In my opinion the WRD are mismanaging our deer herd very badly. I saw fewer deer this year than last. They have too many doe days. The coyote population is growing. We kill every one we see. Hogs have also moved in my hunting area. During this season I only saw a spike and a 7-pointer and about seven does all season. I took hte 7-pointer for one deer harvest for the season. Thank you for letting us write our opinion. I don’t think the WRD is listening to anyone anyway.
Barrow Co. E-4, G-4, P-3
Excellent: I have successfully taken a nice 7-point buck and a huge 10-point and a mature doe. I am 15 years old and live in Barrow County.
Excellent: Question 1: Approve. Stands to reason more deer down the road to hunt. Means more hunters to enjoy the sport. Question 2: Too high. Three does and two bucks for each hunter. Question 3: Stop baiting statewide. Plant, fertilize, plan. Plan what is best for conservation, use that plan, not just for deer but all animals. Stop baiting altogether.
Poor: I live inside the city limits, so it’s bow-only for me, which isn’t a problem because I like hunting with my bow. I usually see a good number of deer during bow season, but as soon as October rolls around, the deer seem to disappear. I believe if I could bait or feed year round, I could hold the deer on the property a bit longer. This is the only place I have to hunt. I can’t afford to lease land, and despite the regs that clears landowners, people will not grant permission to hunt.
Bartow Co. G-3, F-11, P-11
Good: Although I primarily hunt in Bartow County, I also spend significant time hunting in Macon County as well. I feel that the weather had a lot to do with the quality of this year’s hunting season. I also believe that doe days should be set county-by-county as they used to be, rather than by zones. The conditions, terrain, are so diverse within a zone that one regulation cannot be applicable to the entire region.
Good: I feel as though it is ridiculous that we can’t bait in the Northern Zone and that deer season is shorter. We need to go to a consistent deer season and allow baiting in all of Georgia. It is a shame that I am a criminal when I apply the same management practices to my property in Bibb County that I apply to my property in Wilkinson County. The presence of corns doesn’t make deer feed at night, the pressure and presence of hunters does. The property I just purchased in Bibb County has several photos of bucks eating gin broad daylight because hunting pressure is low.
Poor: My sensor of hunting has gone from excellent to poor (say 60s poor). I went from killed three or four a year to one in three years. From sighting a deer every time I went to the woods to six a year, maybe. It took 10 years to get the deer numbers to where they were good or excellent to poor. It will take 10 or more to get it back—44 years of hunting. Cut the limit to six. Feed use, statewide legal because everyone is feeding north and south, cause I killed a deer this year that was full corn in the north coming off neighbor’s property.
Poor: Saw only two deer all season. Very poor.
Poor: I attribute the poor season to lack of quality food sources. There were no acorns on the ground in Bartow County. This is a problem that could be solved by making hunting over bait legal statewide.
Poor: Bartow County was poor for deer hunting. Did not see any bucks or does. The deer I got was what the DNR donated to me. Approve a buck-only December because the does are already bred. Deer limit is too high. It should be one buck and two does only. Hunting over bait should be statewide. Don’t know how the Northern Zone was left out.
Poor: Rated season poor only because over half the deer that would have been legal to take were too small in body size to be worth the trouble and expense. Question 1: Rather than closing most of December to buck-only hunting, reduce the doe limit to three and keep buck limit at two with one being 4-point or better on one side. To do this, the state needs to change the recording system and go back to when you had to place a filled-out tag on the animal before leaving the woods. Current system or reporting is wide open for violating game accountability. This will allow hunter to harvest a doe when he feels he wants to and not before because window of opportunity is being shut down. Question 3: As to hunting over bait, make the entire state the same. Either do it or not do it. Too much baiting going on illegally in Northern Zone from my perspective. So do it, or stop it for entire state. Make it easier for our game enforcers to oversee.
Poor: My deer season was poor because of the weather, hunting pressure from other hunters over-hunting the area next to my property. I’m speaking for other bowhunters on extending bow season until late October, then open centerfire rifle season beginning in November during the rut. When bow season opens in September, it’s so hot deer movement is almost non-existent. If bow season is extended to late October when it begins to get colder, then deer movement would improve before the big guns start going off. I’m sure my fellow Georgian hunters would approve of a new season on bowhunting, muzzleloader hunting and centerfire rifle season.
Poor: The clubs around us are killing every deer they see. The club on our border killed 52 deer off of 250 acres last year. I have hunted my club and the farm next door for 20 years, and until about four years ago we always have seen plenty of deer. Now seeing a couple of deer in the same week is a surprise. We have steadily had the same feed and camera program and just watched deer numbers go down! The limit needs to go back to two bucks and three doe. Also, we need to have the Telecheck like surrounding states. Our system can not be accurate. I have never been called about my deer season since we stopped turning in tags. Who is keeping up with the numbers and where are they getting the information?
Ben Hill Co. G-4, F-6
Good: I saw deer every time I hunted.
Fair: Season was OK for me. Saw a few small bucks and a few does. Didn’t see the deer I saw last year.
Fair: I have hunted the same 3,500-acre lease for the last 20 years, and the last three years deer numbers have dropped drastically. We have very few coyotes. Our biggest problem is poachers, night hunters and road hunters. I’ve called the DNR several times to report this and am told that they have so many calls similar to this that they will get to it when they can. A local deer processor told me he has friends who only hunt at night time from the road because they can hunt where they want to and if they get caught then the fine is lower than what a club lease is. The same processor told everyone this year that he didn’t believe in the December “no doe days,” so if you kill them I will process them.
Fair: I still think we have too many doe days, and I think the limit is too high on does.
Berrien Co. E-1, G-3, F-7
Excellent: Seeing a lot of deer!
Good: My family had a good year. Thanks to the use of bait, we were able to see deer that normally would go unseen. Hunting large tracts of 15-year-old planted pines with a dense understory has been very difficult in the past. With baiting, we were able to get deer to stay in our shooting lanes for longer periods. My three children ages 12, 10 and 8 harvested a total of three bucks and two does. They passed on several small bucks and several doe. We would like to have harvested more does. I do not agree with closing doe days during any holiday season. When children are out of school for the holidays and wish to hunt, let them harvest buck or doe! Don’t take the fun out of it for children. I am not against closing doe days, just don’t close them in such a way that it discourages our future hunters from wanting to go to the woods. I realize the condition of Georgia’s deer herd is different all across the state. I agree that some areas may need less harvest than others. I do not agree with putting any new doe restrictions in areas where crop damage permits are issued. If the population is causing that much damage, then hunters should be allowed to harvest does throughout the season.
Bleckley Co. F-1, P-4
Fair: The politics need to be taken out of DNR and put wildlife and the sportsmen back in it.
Poor: Had a good deer herd before. Deer limit too high for my area, due to neighboring hunters wanting to kill the limit. My grandsons, 10 and 12, see no deer due to overkill, and baiting has taken away from them also.
Poor: Due to bears. Last year was excellent, only a few bears. This year we only saw three deer total and plenty of bears. Bleckley County needs a bear season soon. Most members are not getting back in the club due to no deer.
Bibb Co. G-1, F-1, P-1
Fair: I saw many does. I didn’t see a buck until I caught one on my trail camera on the last day of deer season.
Brantley Co. P-2
Poor: Had a very poor season due to lack of deer.
Highly approve of December buck only. Needs to be a few more days of buck only for south Georgia. Deer limit on does is too high for this part of Georgia.
Brooks Co. E-2, G-3, F-2
Excellent: I saw plenty of deer each time I went and passed on several solid 3-year-old bucks in bow range. Didn’t have a chance on the 4-year-old with my bow that I have seen for 2 years on camera. Haven’t seen much food-plot activity until late season. Questions 1 & 2: I believe that either way it is cut, the harvest of does should be lowered. If the deer limit is lowered, then it should be properly policed, which is a great challenge due to budget constraints. Therefore, it stands to reason the most productive way is to reinstate doe days. I am a supporter either way, so long as the betterment of the herd, local or statewide, is the main goal. Question 3: Baiting for me just allows me to legally bring deer in front of my camera for survey purposes. I have no opinion as I have no knowledge on Northern Zone herds, hunting pressure and so on. I will pour corn in front of cameras as I have done for years, regardless of the law. I have never hunted over bait, as it is unsporting.
Good: I killed my biggest deer ever, while sitting with one of my best friends during the pre-rut, and doing such in southern Brooks County was really special. All of our work is paying off. Question 1: I really felt we needed to limit the doe season as we don’t see high numbers of deer in Brooks County. I DO NOT like the December shut down. We had family in town for Christmas, and none of them could shoot or even hunt for anything but bucks, and frankly, I really did not want them shooting any bucks unless they are huge as we have been practicing QDM for seven years now. They should be able to shoot does. Question 2: I would prefer a two-buck limit and a four-doe limit. That is PLENTY for any one person and plenty for most families. Anyone who needs to shoot more can invite some friends or non-hunters out to shoot does and still accomplish their management goals. The December closure of doe season kept hunters out of the woods. That should not be our goal. We need to encourage hunting and get more kids involved. An open doe season with reasonable limits will accomplish that. Question 3: I agree that bait should be allowed. Everywhere. Let the DNR focus on something important like poaching and night hunting.
Good: I agree with the doe days this year. I think it was a good move. Not really sure if it was at the right of the year, but I am all for it. Now as far as the deer limit goes, I feel like 12 deer a year is way too many. Three to five a year is plenty. I know plenty of people that feel like if the limit is 12 that’s what they try to kill. I also see where someone said one buck and four does. I disagree with that idea also. I think the does need a break. That’s how we reproduce deer hunting. I hunt over bait, and I really enjoy it because I see so many more deer. This year I have hunted in Brooks and Thomas counties and I had a very good season. I have seen an increase in the deer population down here, and I think everything is turning around.
Bulloch Co. G-2, F-3, P-1
Good: I think they should cut down on permits to kill deer at night in summer.
Good: Too hot early. Maybe bring dog hunting in Southern Zone to Nov. 1 – Feb. 28 due to letting farmers get crops out and time to hunt. Leave it either-sex days full season in Southern Zone. I am a farmer and don’t shoot deer on permits in the summer and waste meat, but if limits and doe days are cut, me and a lot of my neighbors won’t have no choice but to shoot deer in the summer damaging crops. Leave bag limits the same. Legalize baiting statewide, easier for (short) DNR personnel.
Fair: Deer numbers down in county.
Fair: This season, for myself and most of my friends, was fair to good. At least in our areas there seemed to be no less deer using our lands, just that they were way more nocturnal than recent seasons. The December buck-only restriction is pointless. In between the two ruts you usually don’t see that many deer, much less does, as the herds are not usually bunched up. If it is decided that a smaller doe harvest would be beneficial, then decrease the overall doe bag limit. This would keep from limiting some hunters ability to bag the number of deer they wish to have for the season! I do not have enough information to suggest the proper overall bag limits; however, my friends and I have noticed plenty of deer this year, only, they were way more active at night than in past seasons. I suspect that the extra amount of rain moved the deer from the lowland areas they had been inhabiting for the last 5+ years of drought. This means their routes and food supplies changed in location and variety so it is not a surprise that their timing might have been affected as well! I really believe that hunting over baited fields should be continued at least in the Southern Zone. I don’t believe the populations to be decimated as a result or that there are too few deer to hunt. I do however feel that baiting could be extremely beneficial in the Northern Zone in more populated areas of the state. There are fewer hunters with even fewer places to hunt making it almost impossible to have a meaningful population control with hunting bag limit manipulation!
Poor: I killed an 8-point on opening day. Since then, I’ve not even seen another buck. I’ve also only had one opportunity to shoot a doe, and that was during the doe season closure. I’m retired have averaged two to three hunts per week, so it’s not that I haven’t spent time in the woods. Question 1: With this year’s regulations, local deer processing plants told people they had processed more does before the doe season closure than all of last year. Hunters knew their chance to shoot a doe later in the year would be reduced, so they went ahead and killed all they could while it was still legal. After Thanksgiving, cold weather, rain and wind will reduce the number of hunters to the real die-hards anyway. Also, after Thanksgiving, hunting pressure will have reduced the sightings of all deer. If DNR really wants to reduce the doe harvest, go back to the old regulations of having the first days or weeks of the season be for bucks only, and the remainder be for either-sex. Question 2: The current doe limit is entirely too high. I know most people don’t regard the limit is how many they have to kill, and the rogues are going to kill whatever number of deer they’re going to kill regardless of what the limit is. Last year is the only year that I have ever even approached the legal limit of does, and that was because one of my hunting buddies had open heart surgery and was prohibited from hunting, and another hunting partner was deployed to Afghanistan, and I killed deer for their families to use, in addition to what we could use. Five or six does is plenty, regardless of what the farmers and insurance companies would like to have killed. I would oppose reducing the buck limit to one, as some have proposed. If DNR would like to make both bucks in the limit have at least 4-point on one side, I could live with that, although I really don’t think there is much need to change the buck limit. Question 3: I don’t know if north Georgia conditions might make bait sites more stressful on deer populations, but for south Georgia, I would not want to see baiting ended. It’s not because of the success I’ve had—since baiting was legalized, I’ve only seen one deer, a 40-lb. (maybe) yearling at a bait site. I do have lots of fat coons and squirrels, but any deer that do come obviously do so predominantly at night. I’ve had much more success with food plots, and I can’t see that it would be fair to ban those, especially when “money” people can plant and manipulate whole fields to attract deer (and other game). Our local game warden cited some statistics at a hunt-club meeting that indicated success was less for those hunting over bait sites. However, if some people have had some success, or feel like it gives them a chance to compete with what would return to illegal baiting or those that have the money to plant to attract deer, then I don’t think it should be banned, at least in south Georgia.
Burke Co. E-8, G-14, F-6, P-3
Excellent: My season was excellent. I harvested a very nice 8-point and three does. My best friend took a very nice 10-point and my brother took a very nice 8-point and several does. Most of this harvest was taken in Burke County, however, a couple of my does were taken in Jasper County. Question 1— Doe Day in December, or the lack thereof: Many of us hold off harvesting does on our property until after the rut or 11/15, whichever comes first. We believe this provides more does to “drag” those big ol’ boys out of the thickets to produce a better rut, more activity, etc. Of course we didn’t even see the rut this year, as something had it all whacked up. Question 2 — Current Limit: If DNR wants to reduce number of does harvested, then reduce the number of tags, do not reduce the opportunity to shoot a doe in December. We see many fewer deer in December due to what we call the “Thanksgiving Syndrome.” Deer, all deer seem to go underground and we see many fewer deer after the rut. Question 3 — Shooting Deer over bait: Regardless of one’s thought for or against this practice, it should be done statewide, do it, or don’t do it, but do it statewide.
Excellent: Probably one of the best hunting seasons in several years for me. I saw more deer than I have in a long time. On one farm in Burke County that I hunted the cotton had to be planted over three times because of crop damage by deer. When doe days came back in after Christmas, the landowner requested we take out 50 does. That was no problem. Took about two weeks. Still seeing plenty of yearlings and adult does. I hunted Burke, Jefferson and Jenkins counties. Deer were plentiful. I hope the state decides to go back to not having restrictions on doe days in December like this year. We don’t need them. I think if they decide to have doe days again, they should be for gun and bowhunters alike. I also think if they have restricted doe hunting, it needs